Collections: Browse By Last Name. k

KAMENICKY, Albert L. (b. 1924).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0816

His experiences while aboard the cruiser USS Phoenix during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 27/04/1990

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KAMMEYER, Robert A. (b. 1923).

39th Fighter Squadron. 35th Fighter Group. 5th Air Force. Army Air Forces veteran. 39th Fighter Squadron. 35th Fighter Group. 5th Air Force.

Interview ID: OH 1385

His experiences as a P-51 pilot in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Decision to enlist, February, 1943; basic training, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, 1943; college preparatory courses, Michigan State College, East Lansing, 1943; pre-flight training, Randolph Field, San Antonio, Texas, 1943; primary flight training, Vernon, Texas, 1943; basic flight training, Enid, Oklahoma, 1943-44; single-engine advanced training, Foster Field, Victoria, Texas, 1944; gunnery and tactics schooling, Harding Field, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1944; advanced fighter pilot training, Fort Sumner, New Mexico, 1944-45; assignment to Nadzab, New Guinea, 1945; transition to the P-51; ground-support missions for Australian troops; transfer to the 39th Fighter Squadron at Clark Field, Luzon, 1945; ground-support missions in the Philippines; transfer to Okinawa, July, 1945; bomber escort missions over Japan; fighter sweeps over the Japanese home islands; missions to China; celebrations following VJ-Day; transfer to the 159th Liaison Squadron, 3rd Air Commando Group; occupation of Japan and visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki; relations with Japanese civilians; separation from the military, May, 1946, and adjustments to civilian life.
Date of Interview: 23/10/2000

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KAMP, H. W. (b. 1922).

Interview ID: OH 1097

His experiences concerning the desegregation of North Texas State College, 1954-56.
Date of Interview: 10/10/1995

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KAMPMANN, Ike (b. 1918).

Army veteran.

Interview ID: OH 1278

His role as the defending attorney for four Japanese soldiers accused of spying during the Philippines Campaign, 1944-45. Assignment to 6th Army Headquarters and appointment as defense attorney by General Walter Krueger; description of the trial proceedings; conviction and execution of the accused Japanese soldiers; personal doubts about the fairness of the trial
Date of Interview: 12/10/1996

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KANADY, Billy Don (b. 1937).

Interview ID: OH 1626

Childhood in Van Alstyne and McKinney, Texas; his own and father’s work at Texas Textile mill; life in “mill block” housing; 1948 tornado and family’s year spent in Waco as textile mill was rebuilt; social and economic life in McKinney.
Date of Interview: 24/10/2006

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KANAMAN, James R. (b. 1919).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0382

His experiences while aboard the destroyer-minelayer USS Tracy during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 19/09/1977

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KARR, Anne Pearsall (b. 1923).

Interview ID: OH 1180

Her experiences on the homefront during World War II. Youth in Elgin, Illinois; effects of Depression on Pearsall family; college at Iowa State; courtship with Kenneth Karr, her future husband; reaction to Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor; changes on Iowa State campus after American entry into World War II; wartime rationing and Victory Gardens; effects on Pearsall family having a son and daughter in military service; her marriage to Kenneth Karr, early 1944; housing shortage in Corpus Christi, Texas, during World War II; birth of their daughter; wartime entertainment; experiences as a military wife; attitudes toward the Japanese; husband's training as a naval air cadet at Corpus Christi Naval Air Station.
Date of Interview: 22/06/1997

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KASPAR WIRE WORKS. Interviews with Arthur H. Kaspar (b. 1900) and Don G. Kaspar (b. 1928).

Interview ID: OHB 0037

KASPAR, Arthur H. Chairman of the board, Kaspar Wire Works. Family background; father’s wire basket business in Shiner, Texas; expansion of business in 1920s; sales trips using Model T; addition of coat hangers to products list; development of spot welding, 1929; success of florist wire easels and swimming pool basket products; building of plant, 1932; development of custom work; effects of Depression; product inclusion in national catalog, 1935; addition of shopping basket line, 1936; civilian products shutdown and wartime contracts, 1940s; financing of business; civic activities in Shiner. KASPAR, Don G. President, Kaspar Wire Works. Description of Shiner, Texas, 1930s; Korean War experience; work as sales manager at plant; addition of newspaper racks and wire computer parts to products line; activities and incorporation of Kaspar Wire Works, Kaspar Properties, Kaspar Electroplating, Kaspar Die and Tool; corporate structure; personnel practices; views on government regulations; prospects for corporate growth; civic activities in Shiner.
Date of Interview: 07/01/1980

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KASTER, James (b. 1933).

member of the Texas House of Representatives from El Paso. Democrat.

Interview ID: OH 0085

His experiences and personal views as a member of the Regular and First Special Session of the Sixty-second Legislature. Revenue bills; corporate profits tax; Sharpstown stock-fraud scandal; legislative ethics; “Dirty Thirty”; appropriations; redistricting; personal legislation.
Date of Interview: 12/08/1971

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Interview ID: OH 0153

His experiences and personal views as a member of the Sixty-third Texas Legislature. Freshmen legislators; reform legislation; appropriations; personal legislation; comments about Governor Dolph Briscoe.
Date of Interview: 15/06/1973

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Interview ID: OH 0274

His experiences and personal views as a member of the Sixty-fourth Texas Legislature. Comments about Speaker Bill Clayton; House speakership race; committee assignments; constitutional revision; public school financing; public utilities legislation; personal legislation; comments about Governor Dolph Briscoe.
Date of Interview: 23/06/1975

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Interview ID: OH 0562

His experiences and personal views as the governor’s legislative liaison during the Sixty-seventh Texas Legislature. His appointment as legislative liaison; comments about Governor William Clements; legislative strategy; law-and-order legislation; initiative-referendum; curriculum revision bill; redistricting; state water plan; comments about Speaker Bill Clayton and Lieutenant Governor Bill Hobby.
Date of Interview: 25/02/1982

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KEATHLEY, E. Maurice (b. 1933)

Interview ID: OH 1055

His recollections concerning the Kaiser Permanente-Prudential Insurance company joint venture in health care.
Date of Interview: 24/05/1995

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KEE, Sarah J. (b. 1908).

Interview ID: OH 0878

Her experiences as a student in the library school at the College of Industrial Arts, Denton, Texas, and her subsequent career in library administration. Early teaching career, De Leon (Jones County), Texas; library school at College of industrial Arts, 1935-38; librarian at Sabine (Texas) High School, 1935-40; librarian at South Park High School, Beaumont, Texas, 1941; Army Library Service during World War II; Missouri State Library; Wisconsin Free library Commission; activities with American Library Association; U.S. Office of Education, Dallas, Texas.
Date of Interview: 29/02/1992

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KEFFER, J Lindsay (b. 1934).

University of Texas.

Interview ID: OH 1137

His experiences as a student at North Texas State College during the desegregation of the school, 1957-60. Comments about President J C Matthews; observations about racial matters on the college campus and the community of Denton, Texas.
Date of Interview: 12/10/1996

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KEITH, Lawrence J. (b. 1920).

2nd Battalion. 131st Field Artillery. Texas National Guard. Army veteran. 2nd Battalion. 131st Field Artillery. Texas National Guard.

Interview ID: OH 0729

His experiences at Ford Island Naval Air Station with the Marine guard detachment during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 13/11/1987

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KELLEY, Ben (b. 1916).

2nd Battalion. 131st Field Artillery. Texas National Guard. Army veteran. 2nd Battalion. 131st Field Artillery. Texas National Guard.

Interview ID: OH 0565

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese during World War II. Fall of Java and capture; Bicycle Camp, Batavia, 1942; hell ship to Japan; Ohasi, Honshu, 1943; liberation.
Date of Interview: 26/03/1982

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KELLEY, Craig (b. 1952)

Interview ID: OH 1538

His experiences while attending the Texas International Pop Festival, Lewisville, Texas, August 30-September 1, 1969. His upper middle-class upbringing in Lubbock, Texas; his activities as a teenager; clothing fashions of the Sixties; general discussion of the music of the Sixties; comments about the Beatles; his decision to attend the Texas International Pop Festival; skinny-dipping activities in Lake Dallas; activities of the Hog Farm at the festival; “bad trip” tents; comments about the “free stage” at the festival; performance of the Grand Funk Railroad; comments about the performances of Janis Joplin and Sam and Dave; comments about vocalist Minnie Ripperton and the Rotary Connection; lasting effects of the festival on his life.
Date of Interview: 15/02/2004

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KELLEY, Ernest L., Jr. (b. 1921).

A Troop. 112th Cavalry. Texas National Guard. Army veteran. A Troop. 112th Cavalry. Texas National Guard.

Interview ID: OH 1483

His life as a youth in northeast Texas; family experiences during the Great Depression; his long-time love of mules and horses; his decision to join the 112th Cavalry, Texas National Guard, November, 1940; mobilization of the Texas National Guard, November 18, 1940; training with horses, Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas, 1940-41; advanced training at Fort Clark, Brackettville, Texas, 1941; return to Fort Worth for additional mounted training, 1941; Louisiana Maneuvers, July-September, 1941; voyage from San Francisco to New Caledonia, 1942-43; assignment to Townsville, Australia, 1943; assault on Woodlark Island, July, 1943; dismounting of the cavalry and its conversion to regular infantry; the landing at Arawe, New Britain, December, 1943; combat around Arawe; comments about the fighting qualities of Japanese soldiers; his role as a machine-gunner; rest and relaxation in Australia, July, 1944; combat near the Driniumor River, Aitape, June, 1944; invasion of Leyte, Philippines, November, 1944; combat around the Ormoc Valley; hospitalization due to malaria; landings at Lingayen Gulf, January 27, 1945; his battle wound from a Japanese machine gun burst; rotation back to the States, August, 1945, and subsequent discharge.
Date of Interview:
20/02/2003 to 21/02/2003

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KELLEY, Jack W. (b. 1921).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: Oh 0418

His experiences while aboard the battleship USS Tennessee during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 19/04/1978

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KEMP, Albert E. (b. 1921).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 1110

His experiences while aboard the destroyer USS Dewey during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 11/12/1995

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KEMPFF, Paul (b. 1914).

Veteran of the Royal Dutch Navy in the Netherlands East Indies.

Interview ID: OH 0535

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese during World War II. Fall of Java and capture; Bicycle Camp, Batavia, 1942; Changi Prison Camp, Singapore, 1942; building the Burma-Thailand Death Railway, 1942-44; Tamarkan, Thailand, 1944; Chungkai and Bampong, Thailand, 1944-45; liberation.
Date of Interview: 13/10/1980

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KENNEDY, Albert E. (b. 1921).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: Oh 0699

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese during World War II. Sinking of Houston, 1942; capture and imprisonment at Serang, Java; Bicycle Camp, Batavia, 1942; Changi Prison Camp, Singapore, 1942; building the Burma-Thailand Death Railway, 1942-44; Kanchanaburi, Thailand, 1944; Saigon, French Indo-China, 1944-45; liberation.
Date of Interview: 15/04/1987

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KENNEDY, Hazel (b. 1899) and Annie Mae (b. 1901).

Interview ID: OH 0990

Their recollections about Texarkana, Texas, 1927-41; their careers; church activities; social organizations; their education; entertainment; local business enterprises; women in business; ethnic groups.
Date of Interview: 26/11/1993

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KENNER, Jack W. (b. 1920).

2nd Battalion. 131st Field Artillery. Texas National Guard). Army veteran. 2nd Battalion. 131st Field Artillery. Texas National Guard).

Interview ID: OH 0513

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese during World War II. Fall of Java and capture; Bicycle Camp, Batavia, 1942; Changi Prison Camp, Singapore, 1942; hell ship to Japan, 1942; Hakodate, Sapporo, and Muroran, Hokkaido, 1942-45; liberation.
Date of Interview: 04/04/1980

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KENNERLY, Sarah Law (b. 1910).

Interview ID: OH 0856

Her experiences concerning the development of the Library Services Department at North Texas State College and North Texas State University, 1950-75.
Date of Interview: 01/02/1992

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KENT, James (b. 1918).

Marine Corps veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0127

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese during World War II. Japanese bombing of Cavite Navy Base; fall of Corregidor and capture; Bilibid Prison, Manila, 1942; Cabanatuan, 1942-44; hell ship to Japan, 1944; copper mines at Mitzushima, Honshu, 1944, and American air raids; liberation.
Date of Interview: 11/05/1972

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KERESEY, Richard E. (b. 1916).

Patrol-Torpedo Boat Squadron 5. Navy veteran. Patrol-Torpedo Boat Squadron 5.

Interview ID: OH 1302

His experiences in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Educational background; entry into the Navy, 1941; Northwestern Midshipman School, 1941; Motor Torpedo Boat Squadrons Training Center, Melville, Rhode Island, 1942; operations around the Solomon Islands, 1943; New Georgia Campaign, 1943; accounts of individual exploits of his boat, PT-105; action with Marine paratroopers on Choiseul Island, 1943; his association with future President John F. Kennedy; coordination between PT boats and destroyers; his association with Arleigh Burke, skipper of DesRon 23; return to Melville, 1944.
Date of Interview: 22/02/1997

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KERNS, James T. (b. 1919).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0316

His experiences while aboard a motor launch in Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 15/05/1976

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KERR, Baine P. (b. 1919).

2nd and 4th Marine Divisions. Marine Corps veteran. 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions.

Interview ID: OH 0947

His experiences in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Guadalcanal, 1942-43; machine gun wound at Guadalcanal; Tarawa, 1943; Kwajalein, 1943; Saipan and Tinian, 1944; assignment to legal office at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.
Date of Interview: 04/05/1993

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KHADIVAR, Kamran (b. 1960)

Interview ID: OH 1855

For the DFW Metroplex Immigration Oral History Project. Iranian-born immigrant to Plano, Texas; Civil/structural engineer and businessman. Childhood in Shiraz, Iran; coming to America at fourteen by himself; living with extended family in Texas; adjusting to America and learning English; parents’ escape from Iran during the Iranian Revolution; education in American; work experience; continuing Iranian traditions in own family; opportunities provided in America.
Date of Interview: 09/12/2012

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KHALEGHIPOUR, Hamid (b. 1956).

Interview ID: OH 1684

Iranian-born immigrant to suburban Allen, Texas. Family history; memories of Iran; decision to immigrate to the U.S. in 1978; first impressions of the U.S.; opinions about the Iranian Revolution led by Ayatollah Khomeini; education at the University of Oklahoma; career in information technology; decision to settle in Allen; difficulty of keeping up with far-flung family members; feelings about U.S. relations with Iran.
Date of Interview: 14/10/2009

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KHAMMASH, Susan (b. 1951).

Interview ID: OH 1480

Her recollections while attending the Texas International Pop Festival, August 30-September 1, 1969, in Lewisville, Texas. Her early interest in popular music, particularly The Beatles; her rejection of middle-class cultural values; influence of the Vietnam War on young people; her decision to attend the Texas International Pop Festival; her involvement with the Back-To-Earth movement; cowboys, bikers, and townfolk; security; alcohol and drug use; activities of the Hog Farm; medical and camping facilities; “Wavy Gravy” (Hugh Romney); Grand Funk Railroad, Led Zeppelin, Santana, Ten Years After, Chicago, and Janis Joplin; her thoughts about environmentalism; the women’s movement; the role of music as a reflection of the hippie movement of the Sixties.
Date of Interview: 02/03/2003

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KIBLER, Morris (b. 1921) and Lillian (b. 1924).

Interview ID: OHB 0022

KIBLER, Morris. Family background; early work experience, education; work as youth in Texas Legislature; Air Force, college teaching careers; office machine salesman; purchase of own business; growth and expansion; comments on self-employment. KIBLER, Lillian. Family background; early work experience, education; marriage, family; her involvement in management of the family business.
Date of Interview: 09/11/1978

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KIEHNE, Rudy (b. 1919).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 1355

His experiences while aboard the battleship USS Maryland during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 03/03/1999

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KILBORN, Allen S. (b. 1914).

Army veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0834

His experiences as an Army officer in the Civilian Conservation Corps during the Great Depression.
Date of Interview: 11/03/1991

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KILDAY, Paul (b. 1900).

former U.S. congressman from San Antonio. 1939-49.

Interview ID: OH 0004

Neutrality legislation; selective service legislation; Lend-Lease; conscientious objectors; atomic bomb; demobilization; Marshall Plan; Truman Doctrine; creation of Atomic Energy Commission; Unification Act of the Armed Services; creation of Department of Defense; campaign for Congress against Maury Maverick, 1938.
Date of Interview: 28/08/1965

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KILLGO, Carlton J. (b. 1922).

Army Air Corps veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0109

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Germans after being shot down over Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II. Shooting down of bomber by German fighter. Planes over Magdeburg, 1944; capture by civilians; imprisonment and interrogation near Frankfurt; Stalag Luft 4; Grostichow, East Prussia, 1944; Stalag Luft 1, Barth, 1945; liberation by Russian troops.
Date of Interview: 23/03/1972

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KILMER, Robert B. (b. 1919).

547th Bomb Squadron. 389th Bomb Group. 8th Air Force. Army Air Force veteran. 547th Bomb Squadron. 389th Bomb Group. 8th Air Force.

Interview ID: OH 1433

His experiences as a B-17 pilot in the European Theater during World War II; also his experiences with the French Resistance and as a prisoner-of-war in Germany. His educational background; his reaction to the Pearl Harbor attack; enlistment in the Aviation Cadet Program, April, 1942; basic training, Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas, 1942; primary flight training, Sikeston, Missouri, 1942; basic flight training, Majors Field, Greenville, Texas, 1942; advanced flight training, Pampa, Texas, 1942-43; B-17 transition training, Windover, Utah, 1943; stationing at Grafton Underwood, England, 1943; his description of preparations for a bombing mission; post-mission debriefings; description of missions and his getting shot down, October 14, 1943; rescue by the French Resistance and his six-month experience operating with them; capture by the Gestapo and incarceration at Fresnes Prison, Paris; solitary confinement and interrogation at Wiesbaden, Germany; transfer to Dulag Luft, Frankfurt, Germany, for further interrogation by the Luftwaffe, 1943; transfer to Stalag Luft-III, Sagan, Germany, 1943; physical description of Stalag Luft-Iii and his compound; daily life in the POW camp; value of Red Cross parcels; evacuation and forced march to Nürnberg, Germany, January, 1945; forced march to Moosburg, Germany, 1945; liberation and reunion with his brother at Moosburg; processing at Camp Lucky Strike, Le Havre, France, and return to the States by troopship.
Date of Interview: 22/03/2001

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KIMBLE, Betty J. (b. 1931

Interview ID: OH 0709

Her experiences concerning the activities of the Denton Christian Women’s Inter-Racial Fellowship during the 1960s and 1970s. Early educational experiences in East Texas; Tennyson Miller and Abner Haynes, their impact on the desegregation of North Texas State College; her personal experiences as a student at North Texas State College; student stand-ins at the Campus Theatre; desegregation of local restaurants; comments about the Denton white power structure; job opportunities project; group’s early meetings and social activities; desegregation of Denton public schools; street paving in the African-American section of Denton; voter registration.
Date of Interview: 08/12/1987

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KINDL, Clarence W. (b. 1916).

Army Air Corps veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0641

His experiences at Wheeler Field with the 46th Fighter Squadron during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 04/05/1984

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KING, Elinor W. (b. 1923).

Interview ID: OH 0867

Her experiences as a student at the Frederick Douglass Colored School in Denton, Texas, 1928-40. Family background; segregated education; comments about classmates and teachers; school activities; sports; discipline; courses and classes; summer jobs; comments about desegregation and closing of Fred Moore School.
Date of Interview: 09/01/1992

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KING, Frank H. (b. 1921).

Marine Corps veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0468

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese during World War II. Sinking of Houston, 1942; capture and imprisonment at Serang, Java; Bicycle Camp, Batavia, 1942; Changi Prison Camp, Singapore, 1942; building the Burma-Thailand Death Railway, 1942-44; Kanchanaburi and Tamarkan, Thailand, 1944-45; Phet Buri, Thailand, 1945; liberation.
Date of Interview: 12/12/1972

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KING, Harve D. (b. 1920).

Interview ID: OH 0937

His experiences as a student at Frederick Douglass Colored School, Denton, Texas, during the 1920s and 1930s. Youth in East Texas; segregation in Denton; comments about Professor Fred Moore; school facilities; athletics; comments about his teachers; influence of coach Tennyson Miller; “Three M’s” singing group; his career in education and his philosophy as an educator.
Date of Interview: 10/02/1992

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Interview ID: OH 1411

His experiences in the Pacific Theater during World War II. His youth in segregated East Texas; his move to Denton, Texas, in 1933 and his education at Frederick Douglass school; enrollment at Texas College, 1939, on a football scholarship; induction into the Army, July, 1942; basic training at Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, 1942; life in the segregated Army; relations between white officers and black troops; construction training at Camp Shelby, 1942-43; assignment to Hollandia, New Guinea, January, 1943; race relations overseas; camp construction; hospital construction; promotion opportunities; recreational activities; transfer to Guadalcanal, 1945; leave time in Australia; return to the States and his postwar career in education.
Date of Interview: 22/05/2001

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KING, Leon A. (b. 1938).

Interview ID: OH 0570

His experiences as one of the two African Americans who first integrated athletics at North Texas State College, 1956; comments about Abner Haynes.
Date of Interview: 20/09/1982

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KING, Mike (b. 1953).

Interview ID: OH 1515

His experiences while attending the Texas International Pop Festival, Lewisville, Texas, August 30-September 1, 1969. His adoption of the hippie counterculture while in high school in Corsicana, Texas; his description about various aspects of the Pop Festival; drug use at the Pop Festival; his description of the bands performing at the Pop Festival and their influences on his musical career.
Date of Interview: 06/10/2003

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KINGSLEY, Clarence (b. 1921).

Troop E. 112th Cavalry. Texas National Guard. Army veteran. Troop E. 112th Cavalry. Texas National Guard.

Interview ID: OH 1536

His experiences in the Southwest Pacific Theater during World War II. His decision to join the Texas National Guard, 1936; the federalization of the National Guard, November 18, 1940; training at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas, 1940-41; additional training at Fort Clark, Brackettville, Texas, 1941; Louisiana Maneuvers, summer, 1941; breaking in cavalry horses; assignment to New Caledonia, 1942-43; decision to discontinue the use of horses because of the jungle terrain and conversion to a regimental combat team; his training in a machine gun platoon; the landing on Woodlark Island, July, 1943; amphibious landing and combat on Arawe, New Britain, December 15, 1943; nighttime combat on New Britain; problems with Japanese snipers; landings on New Guinea and the Driniumor River Battle, June-July, 1944; his description of jungle combat conditions; invasion of the Philippines, November, 1944; combat on Leyte; advancing through the Ormoc Valley.
Date of Interview: 21/11/2003

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KIRCHHOFER, Robert J. (b. 1911).

Caltex Petroleum Corporation.

Interview ID: OH 0670

Educational background; early career with Texaco in Jamaica; transfer to Caltex; marketing assistant, India, 1937; marketing Caltex products in India; lifestyles for Caltex employees in India; World War II and Indian market; assignment to Petroleum Ordnance Committee, 1941-43; return to India as Bombay district manager, 1943; partition into India and Pakistan, effect on Caltex; Vizagapatam refinery; transfer to the Netherlands, 1953; relationships between Caltex and shareholders (Texaco and Standard Oil of California); Caltex marketing in Europe; assignment to Caltex (New York) as assistant general manager, North Europe, 1961; appointment as regional director, South European Area; reentry of Socal and Texaco into European market, 1967; appointment as director of Mediterranean and Mid-East Region, 1964-76; OPEC and its effects on Caltex.
Date of Interview: 17/01/1986

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KIRK, John (b. 1917).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0747

His experiences while aboard the destroyer USS Dewey during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 23/04/1988

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KIRKLAND, Zach (b. 1938).

Interview ID: OH 1604

NASA engineer and manager. Childhood in San Antonio and Orange, Texas; education at Lamar State College of Technology; decision to join NASA; work on engine development program, Apollo propulsion systems and duties in mission control; duties in Skylab and Space Shuttle programs; turf battles among Johnson Space Center and other NASA centers and contractors.
Date of Interview: 20/10/2006

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KIRKPATRICK, Herbert II (b. *).

Interview ID: OH 1585

Memories of childhood in Stop Six neighborhood in Fort Worth, Texas; experience of attending all-black public schools throughout most of 1960s; perception that African Americans “lost out” in desegregation of schools in Fort Worth; importance of education as a family value; decision to attend North Texas in 1970 and efforts to find activities that interested him; involvement in North Texas gymnastics team; social interactions with African-American and white students; graduation from North Texas with degree in psychology and minor in rehabilitation psychology; career as public school teacher and guidance counselor.
Date of Interview: 14/03/2006

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KITTERMAN, Ivan L. (b. 1922).

Marine Corps veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0776

His experiences while aboard the battleship USS Nevada during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 17/09/1988

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KITTS, William Wayne (b. 1921).

Interview ID: OH 1723

U.S. Navy anti-submarine warfare veteran of World War II. Childhood and family history in Sulphur Springs, Texas, college at the University of Texas during the Depression, and musical background. Enlistment in the U.S. Navy shortly after the attack at Pearl Harbor, midshipman school in New York City and selection for sonar school in Key West, Florida. Assignment to USS Mason, the first ship in the navy with an integrated crew. Post-war duty as commanding officer of USS Hollis and USS Tollberg. Role in establishing Naval Reserve Training Center in Lubbock, Texas. Reactivation to active duty during Korean War. Post-military career at Vought Aeronautics.
Date of Interview: 13/05/2009

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KLAVENESS, ALF (b. 1916).

Interview ID: OH 1472

His career in the oil exploration business; his service aboard the destroyer USS Benham in the Pacific Theater during World War II. His family’s shipbuilding business in Norway; his parents’ emigration to the United States; his experiences working aboard tankers; college at Louisiana State University, 1934-38; his positions as “jug hustler,” dynamite loader, driller, party manager, and party chief of a seismic engineering crew for Texaco; his duties aboard the Benham as executive officer; application of seismic engineering to sonar operations; his observations concerning the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945; postwar re-employment with Texaco as a geophysicist; his retirement from Texaco and work as a consultant interpreting speculative seismic data; his advocacy of the use of retired warships for peacetime activities; his association with boatbuilder Andrew Higgins; application of sonics to the medical field, offshore oil drilling, underwater archaeology, and anti-submarine warfare; his patents for imaging and mapping the underground; the influence of Dr. Alexander Wolfe on his career.
Date of Interview:
06/11/2000 to 13/11/2000

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KLEIN, Frank (b. 1938).

Interview ID: OH 0655

His experiences as a member of the football team during the desegregation of athletics at North Texas State College, 1956.
Date of Interview: 20/12/1984

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KLINE, Frederick H. (b. 1918).

Army Air Force veteran.

Interview ID: OH 1218

His experiences as a photographic laboratory technician in the China-Burma-India Theater during World War II. Technical training at Lowry Field, Denver, Colorado, 1942; Air Force Photo-Intelligence School, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1943; voluntary duty with the Flying Tigers, Kunming, China, 1943; flying "The Hump"; assignment to 14th Air Force Headquarters for photo-interpretation work; comments about General Claire Chennault; assignment as photo-intelligence officer for the 341st Medium Bomb Group, Yankai, China, 1944; aerial interdiction of Japanese railroad traffic in Indo-China; development of "glip"-bombing techniques to destroy railroad bridges; participation in bombing missions in a B-25; V-J Day and mustering out of the service.
Date of Interview: 10/02/1998

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KLINGENBERG, Elmo (b. 1917).

Interview ID: OHB 0074

Family background; dairy farming in Washington County, Illinois; experiences teaching in one-room school, Washington County, 1935; military service during World War II; employment with United Stockyards Corporation and placement as management trainee at Fort Worth Stockyards, 1946; promotion to yardmaster, 1953; brief description of stockyards activities, early 1900s; geographical area served and volume of business; description of cattle transportation by rail and truck; comments on meat packing operations in stockyards; description of Fort Worth Livestock Exchange; explanation of “private treaty” arrangement between buyers and sellers; description of livestock auctioning process; comments on stockyards company’s sources of income; explanation of waste disposal; comments on duties of personnel; volume of livestock sold at auction; description of weighing and feeding operations; comments on price controls during World War II; remodeling of stockyards facility, 1960s and 1970s; comments on Niles City and its incorporation into Fort Worth; appointment as president and general manager, 1971; company name changes; description of union activities at stockyards; trends in livestock operations in Texas; civic activities; comments on government regulations.
Date of Interview: 12/10/1982

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KLOEPPEL, Lawrence S. (b. 1922).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0770

His experiences while aboard the target battleship USS Utah during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 17/09/1988

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KNIFFIN, Willard (b. 1896).

Interview ID: OH 0215

His reminiscences about the family of former New Mexico Senator Bronson Cutting, including his parents, sister, aunts, and uncles.
Date of Interview: 20/03/1974

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KNIGHT, Douglas F. (b. 1921).

2nd Battalion. 131st Field Artillery. Texas National Guard. Navy veteran. 2nd Battalion. 131st Field Artillery. Texas National Guard.

Interview ID: OH 0413

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese during World War II. Fall of Java and capture; Bicycle Camp, Batavia, 1942; Changi Prison Camp, Singapore, 1942; hell ship to Japan, 1942; Hakodate, Hokkaido, 1942-44; liberation.
Date of Interview: 12/03/1978

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KOGER, James (b. 1926).

World War II veteran.

Interview ID: OH 1590

Remembrances of childhood in Des Moines, Iowa, Peoria, Illinois, San Antonio, Texas, and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; decision to enroll at University of Oklahoma; being drafted in 1945; training in Army Corps of Engineers; service in postwar occupation of Japan; decision to return to University of Oklahoma; career as aviation engineer with General Dynamics in Fort Worth, Texas.
Date of Interview: 14/07/2006

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KOLBERT, Byron (b. 1922).

Army Air Corps veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0411

His experiences at Bellows Field with the 86th Observation Squadron during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 25/02/1978

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KOOKER, Jean (b. 1924).

Interview ID: Oh 0711

Her experiences concerning the activities of the Denton Christian Women’s Inter-Racial Fellowship during the 1960s and 1970s. Early organization and social activities; integration of public schools; desegregation of public eating places; establishment of Denton Christian Preschool; street paving in the African-American section of Denton; voter registration; meeting programs; evolving nature of membership; desegregation of housing; intangible accomplishments of the group.
Date of Interview: 02/02/1988

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KOPERNIAK, Sigismund (b. ca. 1922).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 1478

A personal diary detailing his experiences aboard the destroyer USS Spence during World War II. Launching of the Spence and sea trials off Portland, Maine, January, 1943; shakedown cruise to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, February, 1943; escort duty in the Atlantic and Caribbean, March, 1943; convoy duty in the Casablanca, French Morocco, area, April-May, 1943; passage through the Panama Canal, June, 1943; escort duty for the carriers Princeton and Belleau Wood en route to Baker Island, September, 1943; attachment to Destroyer Division 23 in the Solomon Islands, September, 1943; patrols off Kolombangara and Vella Lavella Islands; interdiction of Japanese shipping and the Spence’s role in sinking of twenty barges off of Vella Lavella; bombardment of Buka-Bonis airfields, November 1, 1943; Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, November 2, 1943; support for landings on Bougainville, November 3, 1943; capture of a Japanese sailor; continued attacks by Japanese aircraft; gun battles with Japanese cruisers and destroyers in the Buka-Rabaul route, November 24, 1943; shore bombardments of Tiaraka, Bougainville, Kavieng, and New Ireland, January-February, 1944; shore bombardment of Emirau, Aitape, Humboldt Bay, and Caroline Islands, March 1-24, 1944; shore bombardment during the invasions of the Marianas Islands, June 19-27, 1944; return to the States for overhaul, August, 1944; extensive details about liberties, daily shipboard routines, general quarters drills, combat stress, watches, and rest and recreation.
Date of Interview: 01/01/1968

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KORAN, Stephen (b. 1913) and Flora Belle (b. 1912).

Army Air Corps veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0236

Their experiences at Wheeler Field (he as a member of the 86th Observation Squadron) during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 16/08/1974

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KORBA, John (b. 1922).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0644

His experiences while aboard the battleship USS West Virginia during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 03/05/1984

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KOTRLA, Hubert E. (b. 1912).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0321

His experiences while aboard the destroyer USS Bagley during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 15/05/1976

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KOURETAS, Nick (b. 1919).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0327

His experiences while aboard the cruiser USS Raleigh during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 08/06/1976

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KOURY, George (b. 1922).

Marine Corps veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0125

His experiences as a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese during World War II. Fall of Bataan and capture; Bataan Death March; Camp O’Donnell, 1942; Cabanatuan, 1942-43; Nichols Field, 1943-44; hell ship to Formosa, 1944; hell ship to Japan, 1944; Prison Camp No. 7, northern Honshu, 1944-45; liberation.
Date of Interview: 27/04/1972

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KRANZ, Eugene (b. 1933).

Interview ID: OH 1614

NASA Mission Control flight director. Early childhood and education in Toledo, Ohio; Air Force career; career with NASA, including flight control missions in Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, International Space Station and Space Shuttle programs, with particular attention to Skylab’s challenges; NASA’s institutional history and culture.
Date of Interview: 11/10/2006

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KRIER, Jennifer Leia (b. 1977)

U.S. Air Force veteran.

Interview ID: OH 1789

For the Women Veterans Oral History Project. U.S. Air Force Major, Logistics Planning Officer (21R), Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Veteran. Childhood in Nebraska; reasons for joining the Air Force; experiences in the University of Nebraska ROTC program and tech school; memories of September 11th attacks while in tech school; tour in Yokota, Japan; tour at Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina; deployment to Kuwait; deployment to Afghanistan; experiences mentoring the Afghan National Police; observations of women in the Afghan National Police; thoughts on women in combat; transition into the Reserves; post-active duty life and future plans; reflections on military service; advice for future generations of women in the military.
Date of Interview: 21/03/2013

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KROHN, Sidney F. (b. 1922).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0339

His experiences while aboard the battleship USS Pennsylvania during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 13/06/1976

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KRUSE, Ed F. (b. 1928).

Interview ID: OHB 0059

Family background; history of Brenham Creamery Company; work in creamery as boy; description of cream churning process; closing of butter manufacturing operation, 1958; work as route supervisor for Swift Ice Cream Company, 1949, and Blue Bell Creameries, 1951; employment as manager of Blue Bell, 1951; origin of Blue Bell label; highlights of managerial years; branch openings in Austin and Houston; personnel recruitment and selection; entry into ice cream jobbing business, 1967; branch openings in Beaumont and Mesquite; advertising approaches; comments on company’s sales and market share; comments on financing operation and organizational structure; views on government regulations; views on his role in future of company; effects of oil boom near Brenham; comments on ingredients used in products; civic and trade association activities; views on development of successful business.
Date of Interview: 18/08/1981

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KUHN, John (b. 1919).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0346

His experiences at Ford Island Naval Air Station with Patrol Wing Two during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 25/10/1976

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KURMADAS, Leo (b. 1922).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0435

His experiences while aboard the auxiliary repair ship USS Medusa during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 08/07/1978

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KUZMA, John (b. 1920).

Navy veteran.

Interview ID: OH 0256

His experiences at Ford Island Naval Air Station with the fire station during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Date of Interview: 05/12/1974

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